The four key routes for waste to energy are Combustion (including incineration), Anaerobic Digestion, Gasification and Pyrolysis. The most common of the four are anaerobic digestion and RDF incineration. Except for combustion, the other three routes also provide useful by-products. It is important to design systems that can make optimal use of these by-products.
Plasma arc gasification and Ash melting technology, Thermal decomposition technology for dioxins are the technologies that are expected to emerge in future for energy generation from MSW.
As per estimates more than 55 million tons of MSW is generated in India per year and there exists a potential of about 1500 MW of power production from MSW.
There are many different types of industrial waste, and each type has characteristics that are distinct from the others. Industrial waste to energy will hence require in-depth study before a decision is made on the most suitable process.
There have been relatively few efforts to derive energy from diverse industrial waste, and this could hence be a promising area of exploration for businesses
Waste management and waste to value are not just technology or economic issues, their success is also dependent on social, cultural and regulatory factors
EIA Act 2006 to be amended – listing the MSW projects under category B2. Atleast, guidelines should be issued for categorization of B1 and B2 projects
Model Concession agreement for municipal waste management to be developed – through interactive stakeholder consultation process OR at least guidelines
MSW Rules 2000 to be amended after wider consultation process- without any need for technology approval and current “Vagueness” should be eliminated
Lack of clarity in extending Duty exemption for renewable energy generation devices /systems.
MNRE, to issues exemption certificate only if developer has PPA for exemption of duty. No clarity on power tariff
WTE is very infirm power. Should be exempted from “UI” mechanism for promotion
CERC advised “project specific tariff determination”- right move .no data base available in india for )&M costs. Regulators are reluctant to consider international costs … as a result, difficult to get preferential tariff.
Regulatory bodies to keep in mind the nascent WTE sector and lack of precedence .Tariff based bid process carried out in Delhi – an aberration and not a bench mark proven successful models of International SWM – a combination of tipping fee & preferential tariff – to be a guiding principle
Characterization studies must be carried out in respective ULBs before SWM Projects are initiated
Biomethanation projects must be taken up only with segregated wastes
Tipping fee should be considered for effective SWM and its success
ULBs to employ qualified, experienced environmental engineers/specialists to oversee the SWM programs
An extensive characterization study of 'Municipal Waste' of a city shall be the corner stone for assessment of the heat value
Characterization & composition data to be used for computation of the heat value of Municipal Waste as above Shortage of land for disposing waste
W2E on its own is rarely financially viable without incentives
Integrated systems engineering essential for changing MSWM infrastructures into Sustainable ones